A brief introduction to the "overall classification" of the power supply and the "common power supply"

What is the power source?

A power source is a device that converts other forms of energy into electrical energy.

The power source is based on the principle of “magnetic generation”, which generates electricity from renewable energy such as water, wind, sea tide, dam water pressure difference, solar energy, and burning coal and oil residue.

The common power source is dry battery (DC) and home 110V-220V AC power.

Power classification

(1) Ordinary power supply

Ordinary power supply can be subdivided into: switching power supply, inverter power supply, AC regulated power supply, DC stabilized power supply, DC/DC power supply, communication power supply, module power supply, variable frequency power supply, UPS power supply, EPS emergency power supply, purification power supply, PC power supply. , Rectifier power supply, custom power supply, heating power supply, welding power supply / arc power supply, electroplating power supply, network power supply, power operation power supply, adapter power supply, linear power supply, power supply controller / driver, power supply, other common power supply, inverter power supply, parameters Power supply, voltage regulator, transformer power supply.

(2) Special power supply

Special power supplies can be subdivided into: shore power, security power, high voltage power, medical power, military power, aerospace power, laser power, and other special power supplies.

Special power supplies are special types of power supplies. The so-called special is mainly because the technical requirements of the power supply are different from the commonly used power supply. The main reason is that the output voltage is particularly high, the output current is particularly large, or the stability, dynamic response and ripple requirements are particularly high, or the voltage of the power supply is required. Or the current is a pulse or some other requirement. This makes the design and production of such power supplies more special or more stringent than ordinary power supplies. Special power supplies are typically designed for special load or occasion requirements and are used in a wide variety of applications. Mainly include: electroplating electrolysis, anodizing, induction heating, medical equipment, electric power operation, electric power test, environmental dust removal, air purification, food sterilization, laser infrared, photoelectric display, etc. In defense and military, special power sources are more irreplaceable for ordinary power sources, mainly used in: radar navigation, high-energy physics, plasma physics and nuclear technology research. (feeling mainly for military use)

A brief introduction to the "overall classification" of the power supply and the "common power supply"

TI special power supply

Common type

Power supply AC power supply

A power supply capable of providing a stable voltage and frequency is called an AC stabilized power supply. The work done by most domestic manufacturers is the stability of the AC voltage. The following is a brief description of the classification characteristics of the AC power supply in the market.

Parameter adjustment (resonance) type

This type of regulated power supply, the basic principle of voltage regulation is LC series resonance, the early appearance of magnetic saturation regulators fall into this category. Its advantage is that the structure is simple, there are not many components, the reliability is quite high, the voltage regulation range is quite wide, and the anti-interference and anti-overload capability is strong. The disadvantages are high energy consumption, high noise, heavy weight and high cost.

The parametric voltage regulator developed on the basis of the principle of magnetic saturation and the "magnetic amplifier-adjusted electronic AC voltage regulator" (ie type 614) that have been popular in China in the 1950s are all AC voltage regulators of this kind.


1. Mechanical pressure regulation type, that is, the servo motor drives the carbon brush to move on the winding sliding surface of the autotransformer, and changes the ratio of Vo to Vi to achieve the adjustment and stability of the output voltage. The regulator can range from a few hundred watts to several kilowatts. The utility model has the advantages of simple structure, low cost and small distortion of the output waveform; however, since the sliding contact of the carbon brush is easy to generate electric spark, the brush is damaged or burned and fails; and the voltage adjustment speed is slow.

2. Change the tap type, make the autotransformer into a plurality of fixed taps, and use the relay or thyristor (solid state relay) as the switch 10 to automatically change the tap position to achieve stable output voltage.

The advantages of this type of regulator are simple circuit, wide voltage regulation range (130V-280V), high efficiency (≥95%), and low price. The disadvantage is that the voltage regulation accuracy is low (±8~10%) and the working life is short. It is suitable for the household to supply power to the air conditioner.

High-power compensation type - purification regulator (including precision regulator)

It uses the compensation link to achieve stable output voltage and easy to implement microcomputer control.

Its advantages are good anti-interference performance, high voltage regulation accuracy (≤±1%), fast response (40~60ms), simple circuit and reliable operation. The disadvantages are: low-frequency oscillation with a non-linear load such as a computer, a program-controlled switch, a large current distortion on the input side, and a low source power factor; the output voltage has a phase shift on the input voltage. Units with high requirements for anti-interference function should be applied in the city. When the computer is powered, it must be used with a voltage regulator of 2-3 times the total power of the computer. Because it has the advantages of voltage regulation, anti-interference, fast response and moderate price, it is widely used.

Switching AC regulated power supply

It is applied to high-frequency pulse width modulation technology. The difference from the general switching power supply is that its output must be the same as the input side and the same phase of the AC voltage. Its output voltage waveform has quasi-square wave, ladder wave, sine wave, etc. The uninterruptible power supply (UPS) on the market removes the storage power supply and charger, which is the regulation of a switching AC regulated power supply. Good performance, strong control function, easy to achieve intelligence, is a very promising AC regulated power supply. However, due to its complicated circuit and high price, the promotion is slow.

Power supply DC stabilized power supply

DC stabilized power supplies can be divided into chemical power supplies, linear stable power supplies and switch-type stable power supplies according to their habits. They are also available in different types:

Chemical power supply

Commonly used dry batteries, lead-acid batteries, nickel-cadmium, nickel-metal hydride, and lithium-ion batteries all fall into this category, each with its own advantages and disadvantages. With the development of science and technology, intelligent batteries have been produced; in the field of rechargeable battery materials, American researchers have discovered an iodide of manganese, which can be used to make cheap, compact, long discharge time and remain after repeated charging. Environmentally friendly rechargeable battery with good performance.

Linear stable power supply

A common feature of the linearly stabilized power supply is that its power device adjustment tube operates in the linear region and stabilizes the output by adjusting the voltage drop between the tubes. Due to the large static loss of the adjustment tube, a large heat sink needs to be installed to dissipate heat. Moreover, since the transformer works at the power frequency (50 Hz), the weight is large.

The advantages of this type of power supply are high stability, small ripple, high reliability, easy to make multi-channel, and output continuously adjustable finished products. The disadvantages are large size, cumbersome and relatively inefficient. There are many kinds of stable power supplies of this kind, and the output properties can be divided into a regulated power supply and a steady current power supply, and a regulated steady current (stable) power supply that integrates regulation and steady flow. From the output value point of view, it can be divided into fixed point output power, band switch adjustment and potentiometer continuously adjustable. From the output indication, the pointer indication type and the digital display type can be divided.

Switching type DC regulated power supply

A class of stable power supplies that are different from linear regulated power supplies are switching DC regulated power supplies. The circuit types are mainly single-ended flyback, single-ended forward, half-bridge, push-pull and full-bridge. The fundamental difference between it and the linear power supply is that it does not work at the power frequency but works at tens of kilohertz to several megahertz. The function tube is not working in saturation or in the cut-off area, that is, the switching state; the switching power supply is named after it.

The advantages of the switching power supply are small size, light weight, stable and reliable; the disadvantage is relatively large compared to the linear power supply (generally ≤ 1% VO (PP), good can be more than ten mV (PP) or less) . Its power can be from a few watts to several kilowatts. The price is 3 yuan - more than 10 million yuan / watt, the following general classification of the introduction of several switching power supply:

A brief introduction to the "overall classification" of the power supply and the "common power supply"

1, AC / DC power supply

This type of power supply is also called primary power supply - AC is AC, DC is DC, it takes energy from the grid, and is subjected to high voltage rectification and filtering to obtain a DC high voltage for the DC/DC converter to obtain one or several stable DC voltages at the output. The power ranges from a few watts to several kilowatts for different occasions. These products have a wide range of specifications and models. The primary power supply (AC220 input, DC48V or 24V output) in the communication power supply is also the case.

2, DC / DC power supply

Also known in the communication system as a secondary power source, it is provided with a DC input voltage from a primary power supply or a DC battery pack, and one or several DC voltages are obtained at the output after DC/DC conversion.

3, communication power

The communication power supply is essentially a DC/DC converter type power supply, but it is generally powered by DC-48V or -24V, and uses a backup battery as a backup for DC power supply, converting the DC supply voltage into the working voltage of the circuit, generally it It is divided into three types: central power supply, layered power supply and single board power supply. The latter has the highest reliability.

4, radio power

The radio power input AC220V/110V, the output DC13.8V, the power is determined by the power of the power supply station, several amps and hundreds of amps have products. In order to prevent the AC power grid from affecting the radio work, a battery pack is required as a backup. Therefore, in addition to outputting a 13.8V DC voltage, this type of power supply also has an automatic charging function for charging the battery.

5, module power supply

With the rapid development of science and technology, the requirements for power supply reliability and capacity/volume ratio are getting higher and higher, and the module power supply is increasingly showing its superiority. It has high operating frequency, small size, high reliability, and is easy to install and expand. Therefore, it is being widely used. At present, although there are corresponding modules in China, the failure rate is high due to the failure of the production process to catch up with the international level.

Although the DC/DC module power supply is currently costly, from the perspective of the overall cost of the product's long application cycle, especially due to the high maintenance cost and good reputation loss caused by system failure, it is still cost-effective to select the power module. What is worth mentioning here is the Rogowski converter circuit, which has the outstanding advantages of simple circuit structure, high efficiency and ripple value of output voltage and current close to zero.

6, special power supply

High-voltage low-current power supply, high-current power supply, and 400Hz input AC/DC power supply can be attributed to this type and can be selected according to special needs. The price of the switching power supply is generally 2-8 yuan / watt special low power and high power supply price is slightly higher, up to 11-13 yuan / watt.

Field of use

Power products are widely used in industrial automation control, military equipment, scientific research equipment, industrial equipment, computers and computers, communications equipment, power equipment, instrumentation, medical equipment, semiconductor refrigeration and heating.

(All the above content is network finishing)

Xiaobian Conclusion : Due to the wide range of power supply applications, the improvement of power supply technology will definitely drive China's economic development level. (Recently, what kind of Huawei has developed an enhanced graphene-based lithium battery?)


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